When writing unit tests for components consuming dependencies, it's important to make sure the right calls were invoked on the dependencies.

Moq has built-in support for tracking invocations: it leverages the same argument matching syntax used for configuring methods to filter invocations. When inspecting invocation, developers can even assert the expected count.

The snippets in this section will be based on the following interface

public interface IService
void Send(string message);
Task SendAsync(string message);
event EventHandler<MessageEventArgs> Sent;
string ContentType { get; set; }
public class MessageEventArgs : EventArgs
public string Message { get; set; }

Implicit verification

The easiest way to verify that the calls configured on mocks were actually performed is by using the Verifiable construct at the end of each configuration.

mock.Setup(p => p.Send(It.IsAny<string>())).Verifiable();

Later, we can use the VerifiyAll to verify that all configurations enriched with Verifiable were matched by an invocation.


Optionally, developers can customize the fail message outputted by Moq if the verification were to fail.

mock.Setup(p => p.Send(It.IsAny<string>())).Verifiable("Send was never invoked");

If your unit test uses multiple mocks, you can use Mock.Verify to verify all verifiable configuration at once.

Mock.Verify(mock, anotherMock, yetAnotherMock);

Explicit verification

Another approach is to explicitly verify that a certain invocation was performed. While more verbose, it offers more powerful tools to developers.

mock.Setup(p => p.Send(It.IsAny<string>()));
mock.Verify(p => p.Send(It.IsAny<string>()));

The Verify method offers additional overloads to specify the fail message and the amount of times the invocation was expected to be performed. The amount of times can be specified as a known value or via a lazily evaluated expression.

mock.Verify(p => p.Send(It.IsAny<string>()), "Send was never invoked");
mock.Verify(p => p.Send(It.IsAny<string>()), Times.AtLeastOnce());
mock.Verify(p => p.Send(It.IsAny<string>()), Times.AtLeastOnce(), "Send was never invoked");
mock.Verify(p => p.Send(It.IsAny<string>()), () => Times.AtLeastOnce(), "Send was never invoked");

Note that since Verify accepts both Times and Func<Times>, both Times.AtLeastOnce() and Times.AtLeastOnce are accepted by the compiler.


The Times class exposes several factory methods to define the constraint on amount of invocations as needed. The basic methods are

  • Exactly: the constraint will fail if the configuration isn't used the specified amount of times

  • AtLeast: the constraint will fail if the configuration is used for a number of time less than the specified amount

  • AtMost: the constraint will fail if the configuration is used for a number of time greater than the specified amount

  • Between: the constraint will fail if the configuration is used a number of times outside of the specified interval

    Times.Between(3, 5, Range.Inclusive)
    Times.Between(2, 4, Range.Exclusive)

    On top of these methods, there are other helpers that can be used to streamline the creation of constraints

  • Never: the constraint will fail if the configuration is used at least once

  • Once: the constraint will fail if the configuration is not used or used more than once

  • AtLeastOnce: the constraint will fail if the configuration is never used

  • AtMostOnce: the constraint will fail if the configuration is used more than once. Note that no usage is also valid for the constraint.


Verifying calls on properties

Like for methods, Moq supports the verification of matching invocations for properties. Developers can configure implicit verification

mock.SetupProperty(p => p.ContentType, "text/plain").Verifiable();
mock.SetupGet(p => p.ContentType).Returns("text/plain").Verifiable();
mock.SetupSet(p => p.ContentType = It.IsAny<string>()).Verifiable();

Alternatively, developers can explicitly verify the performed invocations.

mock.VerifyGet(p => p.ContentType, Times.Once());
mock.VerifySet(p => p.ContentType = "text/plain", Times.Once());

Finally, Verifiable, VerifyGet and VerifySet offer an overload to specify a custom message to return in case the constraint fails.

Implicit or explicit verification?

Moq supporting two different styles of verification makes room for making unit tests either unnecessarily tight or dangerously open. The agency offered by Moq consolidates in two approaches

  • Open configuration, close verification

  • Close configuration, open verification

When following the first approach, developers should configure methods and properties relying as much as possible on constructs like It.IsAny. In the Assert section of the unit test, developers should then rely on explicit verification with constraints as specified as possible.

mock.Setup(p => p.Send(It.IsAny<string>()));
mock.Verify(p => p.Send("Hello world"), Times.Once());

On the other hand, when following the second approach, developers should configure methods and properties specifying as much as possible the expected parameters and rely on implicit verification.

mock.Setup(p => p.Send("Hello world").Verifiable();

Please note that the two approaches are not exactly equivalent as implicit verification does not support checking the amount of invocations.

As mentioned above, using the remaining two approaches (open/open and close/close) is suboptimal when not dangerous. The open/open approach below makes the verification almost useless.

mock.Setup(p => p.Send(It.IsAny<string>())).Verifiable();

The close/close approach below makes writing the unit test too cumbersome for no real gain

mock.Setup(p => p.Send("Hello world"));
mock.Verify(p => p.Send("Hello world"), Times.Once());

Verifying event handling

When dealing with events, it's important to make sure that events are properly handed both to ensure the component works as expected.

service.Sent += MessageSent;

Similarly, registered events should be unregistered to avoid annoying memory leaks.

service.Sent -= MessageSent;

Moq offers the possibility to set expectations on both registration and unregistration of event handler.

mock.VerifyAdd(p => p.Sent += It.IsAny<EventHandler<MessageEventArgs>>());
mock.VerifyRemove(p => p.Sent -= It.IsAny<EventHandler<MessageEventArgs>>());